FSD 17-29 Tip Resolution

March 28, 2018

Purdue University Northwest Faculty Senate

Faculty Senate Document 17-29

Submission Date: March 28, 2018 (Faculty Affairs Committee)

Senate Action and Date:

For Discussion, April 13, 2018
Approved, May 4, 2018

Whereas, the Constitution of the Faculty of Purdue University Northwest grants to the PNW Faculty Senate an advisory role on “Policies affecting the general welfare, privileges, tenure and responsibilities of The Purdue University Northwest faculty, standards for appointment, and procedures for academic promotion of members of the faculty” (Section III.C.8), and

Whereas, the faculty of Purdue University Northwest are interested in promoting fair and equitable treatment of their colleagues in the annual faculty evaluation process, and

Whereas, it has been well-substantiated that student evaluations discriminate against minorities, women, and those teaching online courses (see attachment 1 and, for a list of primary literature, Publications: Equity/Bias in Teaching Evaluations), and

Whereas, the University Senate in West Lafayette has expressed similar concerns about the use of student evaluations for faculty evaluation purposes (see University Senate Document 16-05), and

Whereas, the PNW administration has established criteria for eligibility and awarding of the Teaching Incentive Program (TIP) Awards that use these discriminatory measures as criteria for eligibility and the evaluation of award applications; therefore, be it

Resolved, that the Faculty Senate recommends that the provost instruct deans and department/school chairs not to use the end-of-semester student evaluations as a criteria for application for the TIP Awards and to use them only sparingly as one factor among several in determining the award recipients.


  • Ali Alavizadeh
  • Michelle Bloch
  • Rita Brusca-Vega
  • Niranjan Desai
  • Colette Morrow
  • Jim Pula
  • Vanessa Quinn
  • Staci Trekles
  • Lucy Yang





Attachment 1

A Partial Listing of Research on the Use of Student Evaluations of Faculty

    1. P.C. Abrami, S. D’Apollonia & P. A. Cohen, (1990). “Validity of student ratings of instruction: What we know and what we do not.” Journal of Educational Psychology, 82, 219–231.
    2. J. V. Adams (1997). “Student evaluations: The ratings game.” Inquiry, 1, 10–16.
    3. A. Agresti & B. Finlay (1997). Statistical methods for the social sciences (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall Inc.
    4. H. Alves & M. Raposo (2007). “Conceptual model of student satisfaction in higher education.” Total Quality Management & Business Excellence, 18, 571–588.
    5. W. E. Becker (2000). “Teaching economics in the 21st century.” Journal of Economic Perspectives, 14, 109–119.
    6. W. E. Becker, W. Bosshardt & M. Watts (2012). “How departments of economics evaluate teaching.” The Journal of Economic Education, 43, 325–333.
    7. R. Beecham (2009). “Teaching quality and student satisfaction: Nexus or simulacrum?” London Review of Education, 7, 135–146.
    8. S. K. Bennett (1982). “Student perceptions of and expectations for male and female instructors: Evidence relating to the question of gender bias in teaching evaluation.” Journal of Educational Psychology, 74, 170–179.
    9. R. A. Berk (2005). “Survey of 12 strategies to measure teaching effectiveness.” International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education, 17, 48–62.
    10. R. A. Berk (2012). “Top 20 strategies to increase the online response rates of student rating scales.” International Journal of Technology in Teaching and Learning, 8, 98–107.
    11. Anne Boring, Kellie Ottoboni and Philip B. Stark, “Student Evaluations of Teaching Are Not Only Unreliable, They Are Significantly Biased Against Female Instructors,” The London School of Economics and Political Science,” http://blogs.lse.ac.uk/impactofsocialsciences/2016/02/04/student-evaluations-of-teaching-gender-bias/
    12. A. Boring (2015). Gender biases in student evaluations of teachers (working paper). OFCE-PRESAGE-SCIENCES PO and LEDa-DIAL.
    13. A. Boring, K. Ottoboni & P. B. Stark (2016). “Student evaluations of teaching (mostly) do not measure teaching effectiveness.” Retrieved from Science Open Research. doi:10.14293/S2199-1006.1.SOR-EDU.AETBZC.v1.
    14. M. Braga, M. Paccagnella & M. Pellizzari (2014). “Evaluating students’ evaluations of professors.” Economics of Education Review, 41, 71–88.
    15. W. E. Cashin (1999). “Student ratings of teaching: Uses and misuses.” In P. Seldin (Ed.), Current practices in evaluating teaching: A practical guide to improved faculty performance and promotion/tenure decisions (pp. 25–44). Bolton, MA: Anker.
    16. J. A. Centra & N. B. Gaubatz (2000). “Is there gender bias in student evaluations of teaching?” The Journal of Higher Education, 71, 17–33.
    17. D. E. Clayson (2009). “Student evaluations of teaching: Are they related to what students learn? A meta-analysis and review of the literature.” Journal of Marketing Education, 31, 16–30.
    18. P. A. Cohen (1981). “Student ratings of instruction and student achievement: A meta-analysis of multisection validity studies.” Review of Educational Research, 51, 281–309.
    19. B. G. Davis (2009). Tools for teaching (2nd ed.). San Francisco, CA: John Wiley & Sons.
    20. C. J. Dommeyer, P. Baum, R. W. Hanna & K. S. Chapman (2004). “Gathering faculty teaching evaluations by in‐class and online surveys: Their effects on response rates and evaluations.” Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 29, 611–623.
    21. K. A. Dunn, K. L. Hooks & M. J. Kohlbeck (2016). “Preparing future accounting faculty members to teach.” Issues in Accounting Education, 31, 155–170.
    22. L. C. Duque (2013). “A framework for analyzing higher education performance: Students’ satisfaction, perceived learning outcomes, and dropout intention.” Total Quality Management and Business Excellence, 25(1–2), 1–21.
    23. L. C. Duque & J. R. Weeks (2010). “Towards a model and methodology for assessing student learning outcomes and satisfaction.” Quality Assurance in Education, 18, 84–105.
    24. P. B. Elmore & K. A. LaPointe (1974). “Effects of teacher sex and student sex on the evaluation of college instructors.” Journal of Educational Psychology, 66, 386–389.
    25. B. S. Frey & F. Oberholzer-Gee (1997). “The cost of price incentives: An empirical analysis of motivation crowding-out.” American Economic Review, 87, 746–755.
    26. C. Galbraith, G. Merrill & D. Kline (2012). “Are student evaluations of teaching effectiveness valid for measuring student outcomes in business related classes? A neural network and Bayesian analyses.” Research in Higher Education, 53, 353–374.
    27. P. Ginns, M. Prosser & S. Barrie (2007). “Students’ perceptions of teaching quality in higher education: The perspective of currently enrolled students.” Studies in Higher Education, 32, 603–615.
    28. D. Hamermesh & A. Parker (2005). “Beauty in the classroom: Instructors’ pulchritude and putative pedagogical productivity.” Economics of Education Review, 24, 369–376.
    29. P. Hoefer, J. Yurkiewicz & J. C. Byrne (2012). “The association between students’ evaluation of teaching and grades.” Decision Sciences Journal of Innovative Education, 10, 447–459.
    30. “How Student Evaluations Are Skewed against Women and Minority Professors,” The Century Foundation
    31. Therese Huston, “Research Report: Race and Gender Bias in Student Evaluations of Teaching (PDF),” October 31, 2005,
    32. V. E. Johnson (2003). Grade inflation: A crisis in college education. New York, NY: Springer-Verlag.
    33. T. J. Kane & D. O. Staiger (2002). “The promise and pitfalls of using imprecise school accountability measures.” The Journal of Economic Perspectives, 16, 91–114.
    34. M. Kelly (2012). Student evaluations of teaching effectiveness: Considerations for Ontario universities. Toronto: Council of Ontario Universities (COU #866).
    35. G. Klajman (1997, February). “Nightmares of academic assessment.” ASSESS – Assessment in Higher Education. Retrieved from ASSESS@LSV,UKY.EDU
    36. D. M. Kreps (1997). “Intrinsic motivation and extrinsic incentives.” American Economic Review, 87, 359–364.
    37. J. Kruger (1999). “Lake Wobegon be gone! The ‘below-average effect’ and the egocentric nature of comparative ability judgments.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77, 221–232.
    38. L. Langbein (2008). “Management by results: Student evaluation of faculty teaching and the mis-measurement of performance.” Economics of Education Review, 27, 417–428.
    39. T. Ling, J. Phillips & S. Weihrich (2012). “Online evaluations vs in-class paper teaching evaluations: A paired comparison.” Journal of the Academy of Business Education, 12, 150–161.
    40. A. Lizzio, K. Wilson & R. Simons (2002). “University students’ perceptions of the learning environment and academic outcomes: Implications for theory and practice.” Studies in Higher Education, 27, 27–52.
    41. M. E. Malik, R. Q. Danish & A. Usman (2010). “The impact of service quality on students’ satisfaction in higher education institutes of Punjab.” Journal of Management Research, 2(2), 1–11.
    42. H. W. Marsh (2007). “Students’ evaluations of university teaching: A multidimensional perspective.” In R. P. Perry & J. C. Smart (Eds.), The scholarship of teaching and learning in higher education: An evidence-based perspective (pp. 319–383). New York, NY: Springer.
    43. W. McKeachie (1996). Student ratings of teaching (Occasional Paper No. 33). American Council of Learned Societies, University of Michigan. Retrieved from American Council of Learned Societies Occasional Paper No. 33, The Professional Evaluation of Teaching
    44. New Analysis Offers More Evidence Against Student Evaluations of Teaching
    45. D. D. Nulty (2008). “The adequacy of response rates to online and paper surveys: What can be done?” Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 33, 301–314.
    46. Victor Ray, “Is Gender Bias an Intended Feature of Teaching Evaluations?,” Inside Highered, February 9, 2018
    47. P. B. Sakthivel, G. Rajendran & R. Raju (2005). “TQM implementation and students’ satisfaction of academic performance.” The TQM Magazine, 17, 573–589.
    48. P. Seldin (1999). “Building successful teaching evaluation programs.” In P. Seldin (Ed.), Changing practices in evaluating teaching: A practical guide to improved faculty performance and promotion/tenure decisions (pp. 213–242). Boston, MA: Anker.
    49. P. Seldin, J. E. Miller & C. A. Seldin (2010). The teaching portfolio: A practical guide to improved performance and promotion/tenure decisions (4th ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
    50. P. Spooren, B. Brockx & D. Mortelmans (2013). “On the validity of student evaluation of teaching: The state of the art.” Review of Educational Research, 83, 598–642.
    51. R. Sproule (2000). “Student evaluation of teaching: A methodological critique of conventional practices.” Education Policy Analysis Archives, 8, 2.
    52. R. Sproule (2002). “The underdetermination of instructor performance by data from the student evaluation of teaching.” Economics of Education Review, 21, 287–294.
    53. P. B. Stark & R. Freishtat (2014). An evaluation of course evaluations. doi:10.14293/S2199-1006.1.SQR-EDU.AOFRQA.v1Stark. Retrieved from Science Open
    54. Philip B. Stark, “Teaching Evaluations: Biased Beyond Measure
    55. M. Troy (1995). Changing the evaluation culture.
    56. W. A. Wines & T. J. Lau (2006). “Observations on the folly of using student evaluations of college teaching for faculty evaluation, pay and retention decisions and its implications for academic freedom.” William & Mary Journal of Women and the Law, 13, 167–202.
    57. R. E. Wright (2006). “Student evaluations of faculty: Concerns raised in the literature, and possible solutions.” College Student Journal, 40, 417–422.
    58. S. L. Wright & M. A. Jenkins-Guarnieri (2012). “Student evaluations of teaching: Combining the meta-analyses and demonstrating further evidence for effective use.” Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 37, 683–699.
    59. P. J. Yunker & J. A. Yunker (2003). “Are student evaluations of teaching valid? Evidence from an analytical business core course.” Journal of Education for Business, 78, 313–317.